Shrinking technologies, new materials, and more complex structures are driving defectivity, especially where the circuit design is particularly sensitive to process variation. These non-visual defects reveal themselves as electrical faults that downgrade device performance, threaten reliability, and destroy yield. The problem becomes even more complex when failures occur at the device packaging stage. High-density interconnects, wafer-level stacking, flexible electronics, and integral substrates mean that failure-inducing defects have more places to hide-making characterization more difficult, and more critical, than ever.
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